Information originates from Robert Hoberman (private communication). This seems to be generally member of one’s Jewish dialects of a number of other places in the region also, in addition to Aqra and you will Rawanduz.
But not, inside dialect you will find an incredibly uncommon alter out of h so you can h on 3rd people one possessive suffixes: resIh 'his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): What of your Jews out of Iranian Azerbaijan, along with communities in Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Information is away from Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The text of the Jews away from Halabja on Iran-Iraq border. This is very around the Jewish dialects of one’s almost every other metropolises of area, including Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Information arises from my personal notes.
We will contrast these languages for twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you may lexical requirements. Adopting the Hetzron (1976, 98), i’ve picked simply innovations since the conditions to possess category. I have picked an effective disproportionate level of morphological criteria, therefore we will provide them with unique weight, once again following Hetzron, but other mutual innovations could well be thought to be really.
Notice and the much harder maintenance as well as installation regarding within the Koy Sanjaq claimed from the Hoberman (1985)
While we contrast brand new languages from NENA we are going to you will need to influence the newest extent to which brand new dialects display a distinct trend hence is different from Turoyo and Mandaic. Meanwhile, we are going to come across bundles from isoglosses contained in this NENA.
(1) Stress could be penultimate in all the fresh NA dialects, in addition to Turoyo and you will Mandaic yet not on the three easternmost Jewish dialects, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you will Halabja, which usually fret the last syllable. These types of languages seem, like this, such as additional (Garbell 1965), to exhibit an unusually good dictate regarding Kurdish.
(2) The NENA languages has actually combined h and you may x. Within the Hertevin as a result, h, and you will almost everywhere more it is x: Hertevin haye 'life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli 'I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]good 'new’, Jilu ptIxli 'I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you may +damxotu 'you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Both Turoyo and you may Mandaic keep separate h and you may x. Specific NENA dialects has actually reintroduced h as a credit from Kurdish otherwise Arabic or off Traditional Syriac or Hebrew.(5) not, the fresh new passed down code consistently suggests x. Like, in the Tisqopa you will find lent Arabic terminology, instance sahabi 'friend’, that have h, but inherited terminology eg laxma 'bread’ continuously show x. (6)
(3) Every NENA languages but Hertevin and you can Zakho have forfeit most circumstances off passed on. Such as for example, into the Aradhin we discover arba 'four’, upra 'earth’ equal to Syriac arb a beneficial and afra. During the Hertevin and in Zakho, handed down are frequently ?: Hertevin very?a good 'seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?los angeles 'she heard’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 189). In a lot of most other languages most https://datingranking.net/de/politische-dating-sites-de/ are kept due to the fact ?, and you will, throughout the other individuals, is finished totally. Particular languages have reintroduced borrowed out of Arabic or Kurdish. Including, Halabja has ayza 'good’.
(4) Inside the earlier dialects of Aramaic, such as Tiberian Hebrew, t became [Theta] immediately after a beneficial vowel. It alternation could have been lexicalized when you look at the NENA, which have often t or [Theta] spread because of whole paradigms, if preceded by an effective vowel or perhaps not. Like, when you look at the Aradhin brand new verb 'come’ presently has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya 'it (fem.) comes’, but also [Theta]e:la 'she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Next, in certain languages this new phoneme [Theta] provides experienced more alter. In some dialects [Theta] enjoys merged returning to t, along with anybody else it has become s otherwise l.(7) In one single dialect, Jilu, it is h following come erased except at the start of a term. The 3 easternmost Jewish languages express the latest stunning move away from [Theta] to a single. The results of them change is visible throughout the keyword 'house’ hence looks in almost any dialects once the be:[Theta beneficial]a good (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you can besa (Sanandaj Christian).